Addio a Nelson Mandela, la cronaca del memorial service a Johannesburg
Il saluto del mondo a Madiba. L'inizio della cerimonia ritardato di un'ora per permettere a tutti di entrare nello stadio. Presenti oltre 90 fra capi di stato e leader politici. Fra gli oratori Barack Obama e Raúl Castro - Le immagini
12: 50 Ovazione per il discorso di Barack Obama. Lo stadio in piedi ad applaudire il primo presidente afro americano degli Stati Uniti: "Mandela ha fatto di me un uomo migliore". Tra l'altro Obama ha stretto la mano a Raúl Castro.
Ecco il testo completo del discorso di Obama:
To Graça Machel and the Mandela family; to President Zuma and members of the government; to heads of state and government, past and present; distinguished guests - it is a singular honor to be with you today, to celebrate a life unlike any other. To the people of South Africa - people of every race and walk of life - the world thanks you for sharing Nelson Mandela with us. His struggle was your struggle. His triumph was your triumph. Your dignity and hope found expression in his life, and your freedom, your democracy is his cherished legacy.
It is hard to eulogize any man - to capture in words not just the facts and the dates that make a life, but the essential truth of a person - their private joys and sorrows; the quiet moments and unique qualities that illuminate someone’s soul. How much harder to do so for a giant of history, who moved a nation toward justice, and in the process moved billions around the world.
Born during World War I, far from the corridors of power, a boy raised herding cattle and tutored by elders of his Thembu tribe - Madiba would emerge as the last great liberator of the 20th century. Like Gandhi, he would lead a resistance movement - a movement that at its start held little prospect of success. Like King, he would give potent voice to the claims of the oppressed, and the moral necessity of racial justice. He would endure a brutal imprisonment that began in the time of Kennedy and Khrushchev, and reached the final days of the Cold War. Emerging from prison, without force of arms, he would - like Lincoln - hold his country together when it threatened to break apart. Like America’s founding fathers, he would erect a constitutional order to preserve freedom for future generations - a commitment to democracy and rule of law ratified not only by his election, but by his willingness to step down from power.
Given the sweep of his life, and the adoration that he so rightly earned, it is tempting then to remember Nelson Mandela as an icon, smiling and serene, detached from the tawdry affairs of lesser men. But Madiba himself strongly resisted such a lifeless portrait. Instead, he insisted on sharing with us his doubts and fears; his miscalculations along with his victories. “I’m not a saint,” he said, “unless you think of a saint as a sinner who keeps on trying.”
It was precisely because he could admit to imperfection - because he could be so full of good humor, even mischief, despite the heavy burdens he carried - that we loved him so. He was not a bust made of marble; he was a man of flesh and blood - a son and husband, a father and a friend. That is why we learned so much from him; that is why we can learn from him still. For nothing he achieved was inevitable. In the arc of his life, we see a man who earned his place in history through struggle and shrewdness; persistence and faith. He tells us what’s possible not just in the pages of dusty history books, but in our own lives as well.
Mandela showed us the power of action; of taking risks on behalf of our ideals. Perhaps Madiba was right that he inherited, “a proud rebelliousness, a stubborn sense of fairness” from his father. Certainly he shared with millions of black and colored South Africans the anger born of, “a thousand slights, a thousand indignities, a thousand unremembered moments…a desire to fight the system that imprisoned my people.”
But like other early giants of the ANC - the Sisulus and Tambos - Madiba disciplined his anger; and channeled his desire to fight into organization, and platforms, and strategies for action, so men and women could stand-up for their dignity. Moreover, he accepted the consequences of his actions, knowing that standing up to powerful interests and injustice carries a price. “I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination,” he said at his 1964 trial. “I’ve cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
Mandela taught us the power of action, but also ideas; the importance of reason and arguments; the need to study not only those you agree with, but those who you don’t. He understood that ideas cannot be contained by prison walls, or extinguished by a sniper’s bullet. He turned his trial into an indictment of apartheid because of his eloquence and passion, but also his training as an advocate. He used decades in prison to sharpen his arguments, but also to spread his thirst for knowledge to others in the movement. And he learned the language and customs of his oppressor so that one day he might better convey to them how their own freedom depended upon his.
Mandela demonstrated that action and ideas are not enough; no matter how right, they must be chiseled into laws and institutions. He was practical, testing his beliefs against the hard surface of circumstance and history. On core principles he was unyielding, which is why he could rebuff offers of conditional release, reminding the Apartheid regime that, “prisoners cannot enter into contracts.” But as he showed in painstaking negotiations to transfer power and draft new laws, he was not afraid to compromise for the sake of a larger goal. And because he was not only a leader of a movement, but a skillful politician, the Constitution that emerged was worthy of this multiracial democracy; true to his vision of laws that protect minority as well as majority rights, and the precious freedoms of every South African.
Finally, Mandela understood the ties that bind the human spirit. There is a word in South Africa- Ubuntu - that describes his greatest gift: his recognition that we are all bound together in ways that can be invisible to the eye; that there is a oneness to humanity; that we achieve ourselves by sharing ourselves with others, and caring for those around us. We can never know how much of this was innate in him, or how much of was shaped and burnished in a dark, solitary cell. But we remember the gestures, large and small - introducing his jailors as honored guests at his inauguration; taking the pitch in a Springbok uniform; turning his family’s heartbreak into a call to confront HIV/AIDS - that revealed the depth of his empathy and understanding. He not only embodied Ubuntu; he taught millions to find that truth within themselves. It took a man like Madiba to free not just the prisoner, but the jailor as well; to show that you must trust others so that they may trust you; to teach that reconciliation is not a matter of ignoring a cruel past, but a means of confronting it with inclusion, generosity and truth. He changed laws, but also hearts.
For the people of South Africa, for those he inspired around the globe - Madiba’s passing is rightly a time of mourning, and a time to celebrate his heroic life. But I believe it should also prompt in each of us a time for self-reflection. With honesty, regardless of our station or circumstance, we must ask: how well have I applied his lessons in my own life?
It is a question I ask myself - as a man and as a President. We know that like South Africa, the United States had to overcome centuries of racial subjugation. As was true here, it took the sacrifice of countless people - known and unknown - to see the dawn of a new day. Michelle and I are the beneficiaries of that struggle. But in America and South Africa, and countries around the globe, we cannot allow our progress to cloud the fact that our work is not done. The struggles that follow the victory of formal equality and universal franchise may not be as filled with drama and moral clarity as those that came before, but they are no less important. For around the world today, we still see children suffering from hunger, and disease; run-down schools, and few prospects for the future. Around the world today, men and women are still imprisoned for their political beliefs; and are still persecuted for what they look like, or how they worship, or who they love.
We, too, must act on behalf of justice. We, too, must act on behalf of peace. There are too many of us who happily embrace Madiba’s legacy of racial reconciliation, but passionately resist even modest reforms that would challenge chronic poverty and growing inequality. There are too many leaders who claim solidarity with Madiba’s struggle for freedom, but do not tolerate dissent from their own people. And there are too many of us who stand on the sidelines, comfortable in complacency or cynicism when our voices must be heard.
The questions we face today - how to promote equality and justice; to uphold freedom and human rights; to end conflict and sectarian war - do not have easy answers. But there were no easy answers in front of that child in Qunu. Nelson Mandela reminds us that it always seems impossible until it is done. South Africa shows us that is true. South Africa shows us we can change. We can choose to live in a world defined not by our differences, but by our common hopes. We can choose a world defined not by conflict, but by peace and justice and opportunity.
We will never see the likes of Nelson Mandela again. But let me say to the young people of Africa, and young people around the world - you can make his life’s work your own. Over thirty years ago, while still a student, I learned of Mandela and the struggles in this land. It stirred something in me. It woke me up to my responsibilities - to others, and to myself - and set me on an improbable journey that finds me here today. And while I will always fall short of Madiba’s example, he makes me want to be better. He speaks to what is best inside us. After this great liberator is laid to rest; when we have returned to our cities and villages, and rejoined our daily routines, let us search then for his strength - for his largeness of spirit - somewhere inside ourselves. And when the night grows dark, when injustice weighs heavy on our hearts, or our best laid plans seem beyond our reach - think of Madiba, and the words that brought him comfort within the four walls of a cell:
It matters not how strait the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate:
I am the captain of my soul.
What a great soul it was. We will miss him deeply. May God bless the memory of Nelson Mandela. May God bless the people of South Africa.
12:45 Obama elogia anche la Costituzione del Sud Africa per la protezione dei diritti delle minoranze oltre che quelli della maggioranza: "Troppi leader che oggi celebrano Mandela non tollerano il dissenso nei propri paesi."
12:42 Obama: Come Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela è stato una voce potente in difesa degli oppressi e a favore della necessità morale di giustizia.
Obama: "Mandela taught us the power of action but also the power of ideas". #MadibaMemorial— Clayson Monyela (@ClaysonMonyela) 10 Dicembre 2013
12: 36 Un "gigante della storia". Così Barack Obama ha definito Nelson Mandela. Il presidente americano ha ringraziato "il popolo sudafricano" per aver "condiviso Mandela con noi". Obama è stato accolto da grandissimi e applausi e grida di entusiasmo.
Nelson Mandela "non e' un'icona", "era un uomo in carne ed ossa", che ammetteva le sue imperfezioni ed e' per questo che "lo amavamo cosi' tanto", ha proseguito nel suo elogio funebre a Nelson Mandela. "La tentazione e' di ricordare Mandela come un'icona, ma Madiba ha resistito a questo quadro privo di vita", ha detto Obama tra gli applausi. "Madiba insisteva per condividere con noi i suoi dubbi, le sue paure, i suoi calcoli sbagliati, insieme alle sue vittorie. Diceva 'Non sono un santo a meno che non pensiate che un santo sia un peccatore ma che continua a provarci". (AGI)
12:31 La parola a Barack Obama: grande accoglienza per il presidente degli Stati Uniti. "È un onore essere qui per ricordare Mandela". Il suo "trionfo è stato il vostro trionfo". Come Lincoln Mandela ha tenuto unito il paese. Madiba non è solo un'icona, ma un uomo vero.
12: 22 Adesso si appresta a parlare il presidente Zuma; Come si comporterà la folla?
The real question is whether people will vote with their feet and leave before Zuma speaks.— Lydia Polgreen (@lpolgreen) 10 Dicembre 2013
12: 11 Il leader palestinese Mahmoud Abbas salutato dalla folla nello stadio
12:06 Il maxischermo dello stadio di Johannesburg inquadra il presidente Usa Barack Obama e la folla lo saluta con una vera e propria ovazione. Il presidente e la first lady Michelle, seduta accanto a lui, rispondono salutando e ringraziando la folla. Le urla dei sudafricani lasciano il posto ai fischi per l'inquadratura successiva, dedicata al presidente Jacob Zuma. A cerimonia iniziata ormai da più di un'ora, le tribune e le curve inferiori dello stadio sono praticamente vuote.
12:00 Il Sud Africa ha perso un eroe e un padre, dice Ban Ki-moon. "Mandela fu più di uno dei grandi leader del nostro tempo - fu uno dei più grandi maestri".
11:59 Ora parla Ban Ki-moon Segretario generale delle Nazioni Unite.
11: 53 "Siamo sempre stati consapevoli di dover 'condividere' Madiba con il Sudafrica, l'Africa e il mondo intero". Lo ha detto il generale Thanduxolo Mandela, portavoce della famiglia.
11: 49 Un coro di forti "buu" accoglie le immagini del presidente sudafricano Jacob Zuma ogni volta che viene inquadrato sul mega schermo.
11:39 Mandela "ci ha dato speranza, quando non ne avevamo nessuna". Cosi' l'amico e compagno di prigionia a Robben Island Andrew Mlangeni ha ricordato l'ex presidente sudafricano. "La sua grandezza di leader giungeva dalla sua umilta'", ha detto ancora nel suo tributo.
11:33 Dopo le preghiere confessionali lo stadio di Johannesburg si è infiammato al grido di 'Viva Madiba'. E la folla ha cantato in coro 'ringraziamo il nostro leader' Mandela, tra balli e ovazioni.
11:24 Una preghiera interreligiosa ha segnato i momenti iniziali della cerimonia ufficiale religiosa di addio a Nelson Mandela. Sotto la pioggia battente, hanno preso la parola una dopo l'altro il rabbino capo del Sudafrica, un rappresentante della religione indu', un imam musulmano e un sacerdote cattolico. Poco prima, il vice-presidente dell'African National Congress, Cyril Ramaphosa, a cui e' stato affidato il compito di guidare la cerimonia, si era scusato per la pioggia. "Non siamo stati in grado di fermarla", ha detto, "ma e' quello che Mandela avrebbe voluto: nella tradizione africana, quando piove nel giorno della sepoltura e' un buon segno perche' significa che sarà accolto nel regno dei cieli". (AGI)
ore 11 GMT+1 - È ufficialmente iniziata sulle note dell'inno nazionale sudafricano alle 11.59 ora locale la cerimonia religiosa ufficiale in memoria di Nelson Mandela allo stadio di calcio Fnb di Johannesburg dove migliaia di persone da ore cantano e ballano in onore dell'ex presidente del Paese.
Per la cerimonia religiosa di addio a Nelson Mandela, la vedova Graca Machel è tornata per la prima volta in pubblico dopo la sua morte, attorniata da amici e parenti, allo stadio di Soweto. Con un cappotto e l'abito nero, l'attivista per i diritti umani mozambicana, non ha praticamente lasciato il capezzale del marito negli ultimi sei mesi della sua vita: lo ha vegliato giorno e notte per gli 84 giorni che Mandela ha trascorso all'ospedale di Pretoria e nei tre mesi successivi trascorsi a casa, prima di morire il 5 dicembre. Una delle sue rare apparizioni in pubblico durante la lunga agonia del marito fu un mese fa alla premiere del film 'Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom': il film che racconta la sua straordinaria epopea da prigioniero politico più famoso del mondo fino a primo presidente nero del Sudafrica. Al suo arrivo allo stadio Graca ha abbracciato la seconda moglie dell'ex presidente sudafricano Winnie. (AGI)
Nelson Mandela, un uomo che ha lottato e unito, è un grande esempio per la nostra politica e quella europea. Ne è convinto il premier *Enrico Letta, oggi a Joahannesburg, secondo cui la filosofia di Madiba rappresenta una lezione per l'Europa, perché "venendo qui si capisce che o l'Europa si unisce o l'Europa non conta niente".